A Brief History of Venice...
Jacopo Tatti, called the Sansovino (Florence, July 2, 1486 - Venice, November 27, 1570) was an Italian architect and sculptor. It was the Proto (maximum architect) of the Republic of Venice from 1529 until his death. He began his artistic apprenticeship in the workshop of Andrea Contucci, called Il Sansovino, from which it inherited its nickname.
Andrea Palladio, pseudonym of Andrea di Pietro, was an architect, architectural theorist and designer of the Italian Renaissance, citizen of the Republic of Venice. Influenced by greek-Roman period, primarily by Vitruvius, is considered one of the most influential personalities in the history of Western architecture. His buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic.
Venice has a legendary reputation for its extensive artistic heritage that was recognized by UNESCO with the distinction of World Heritage Site in 1987 for the historic town and the lagoon.
Venice has a rich and varied architectural styles, the most important of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture is a term given to a Venetian building style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine, Arab and a lot of another architecture influences. Chief examples in the city of this style are the Palazzo Ducale and the palace Ca' d'Oro.
The architecture of the city experienced an special bright during the Renaissance, with architects such as Pietro Lombardo, Mauro Codussi and Jacopo Sansovino. In religious architecture, the most remarkable work of the Venetian Renaissance is the Chiesa di Santa Maria dei Miracoli, where Pietro Lombardo uses marbles and rich materials creating a chromatic effect reminiscent of the Venetian paintings. Among the most successful architects in Venetian Renaissance is Mauro Codussi, which will project such notable buildings as the Palazzo Vendramin Calergi, the Scuola Grande di San Marco or the imposing façade of the Chiesa di San Zaccaria. And finally Jacopo Sansovino, author of the monumental Biblioteca Marciana, which Andrea Palladio tell that is the best building erected since Antiquity. The architects Andrea Palladio and Vincenzo Scamozzi also left notable works in Renaissance Venice.
In the Baroque, most prominent architect is Baldassare Longhena, author of the palace Ca 'Rezzonico and of the impressive Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute.
Since 1893 the city hosts the Venice Biennale, which includes since 1980 the Venice Architecture Biennale, held in odd years, with the mission to showcase and develop architectural proposals.
The 14th International Architecture Exhibition, directed by the architect Rem Koolhaas, will be held from Saturday 7th June to Sunday 23rd November 2014 at the Giardini and Arsenale venues in Venice.
The Mostra di Architettura di Venezia, the Architecture section of the Venice Biennale, was established in 1980, although architecture had been a part of the art biennale since 1968. The Biennale is an occasion where big-name architects and designers can showcase new projects, arranged in different pavilions, each with different themes.
The Giardini area is the historical site of the Biennale, whereas it was the Architecture section that reopened the Arsenale in 1980 using the site as an exhibition venue, which in subsequent years was extended to further Arsenale areas.
The city of Venice is situated in 45º 26’ N. latitude, and 12º 20’ E. longitude, the longest day being fifteen hours and a half. It is only five miles distant from the Continent, and a long belt of land, called the Lido Maggiore, separates it from the Adriatic sea. The fortifications of the city are raised and disposed with great art upon twenty small islands formed by nature. From different points may be described banks of sand, called paludi or marshes, formed by the tides of the sea, and the gravelly soil brought down and deposited by the rivers Tagliamento, the Piave, the Brenta, the Adige, and the Po, all of which here pour fourth their waters into the Adriatic. The city is about six miles and a-half in circumference and contains two and a-half square miles. It consists at present of seventy-two islands of various extent, but in former times the islands amounted to 138; they are separated from each other by 150 canals, and connected by 450 bridges, of which 350 are of stone and 100 of wood; besides these there are 100 smaller constructions called traghetti, or foot bridges, to accelerate the communication between opposite banks, particularly on the Grand Canal.
Not less than twenty-eight thousand buildings, including palaces, churches, and other public edifices, have here been raised upon foundations of piles; these in times past were inhabited by a population of two hundred thousand, which is now reduced to about one hundred thousand. The changes produced by the course of time, have brought down Venice from her commanding position; but no change has deprived her of what may be truly called her native magnificence. Innumerable monuments prove to us the exalted power of the ancient republic, so often hailed by the name of 'Queen of the surrounding seas'. The climate is extremly mild and healthy. High and low tides by turns contribute to keep the city clean, but besides this, many machines called cavafango, or mud-pumps, are employed to cleanse the canals and carry off the filth so extracted; while the saltness of the water assists in keeping the temperature warm and pleasant The streets are generally kept in good condition; they were paved for the first time in the year (1226), during the government of Doge Ziani, and were completed upon a larger scale in (1334), under the direction of five directors, well chosen for the purpose. It might appear extraordinary to see stones of volcanic origin employed here, exactly similar to the old lavas of Vesuvius, blocks of which may be seen in some of the streets of Naples; but these stones, which are also doubtless formed of lava, are brought from the Euganean mountains, which, as well as a great portion of the province of Padua, formerly made part of a volcanic region. In buildings of large dimensions the better sort of a soft spongy kind of stone called Travertino is employed, and which is furnished by the mines of Padua and Istria.
It is unnecessary here to enlarge upon the politeness and sobriety of the inhabitants and their elevated manners, or upon the Venetian dialect of the Italian, unquestionably the sweetest and most pleasing of Italy, or finally upon the beauty of the women; these things are all well known. The Grand Canal, which takes a winding course through the midst of the city, divides it into two parts, which two parts are bounded by two splendid rows of palaces of consummate architecture, on each side. The Grand Canal has no foot-way upon its banks, and consequently the palaces seem to have arisen at once from the water, and are completely reflected in it as in a mirror. The principal entrances to these mansions are always towards the Grand Canal, and before them Gondolas, richly furnished and decorated, were always stationed to be ready for conveyance; and, generally speaking, it is only at the back of the buildings that smaller domestic doors are to be found. These last open into narrow streets and are made in the basement story. According to this peculiar plan Venice may be traversed either by water, or on foot by land. Alone in its greatness, the bridge of the Rialto seems to domineer in the sole possession of the Grand Canal, which it embraces with one spacious arch. Venice is adorned by a prodigious number of Churches, the most remarkable of which will be noticed here as well as the most celebrated Palazzi. The city has a colossal bridge over 600 arches that connects to the mainland. Venice will thus indeed lose much of that poetic charm that lingers among her palaces, but that charm can never die away entirely.
When the city had attained to its most extensive dimensions, and its bridges and canals were completed, (in 1072), it underwent a municipal division, and was defined into six districts, each of which on that account was denominated Sestiere, or a Sextain, three of these are upon the right, and three upon the left, of the Grand Canal. This civil division had been preceded by an ecclesiastical one, consisting of seventy-two parishes.
The Sestieri are thus enumerated:
The two islands lying nearest the city, that is Murano and Giudecca, the last formerly called Spina Lunga (the Long Ridge) were included, the first in the 5th Sestiere, and the second in the 6th Sestiere.
As this website is intended to help travellers intending to visit Venice, it is suggested that it would be useful to take care to divide the time destined for such a visit; and, after having taken a general view of the city, we would recommend him to hire a Gondola and make the tour of the Grand Canal. Thus leaving the Piazzetta, he will take the left side and return by the right. By this means he will have, in a few hours, the finest and most beautiful view of this renowned and magnificent city, which he can afterwards examine more particularly. He will then commence his observations on the three Sestieri, of districts, which lie upon the right of the Grand Canal, and which are those of St. Mark, Castello, and Canareggio. Afterwards he will take those upon the left, where are situated the remaining three Sestieri of San Polo, Santa Croce, and Dorsoduro. Four days may thus be employed in seeing the most important things in Venice.